Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
It really is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is converted into a power energy.
Kinds of transducer:
There are 2 types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the most useful examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used to the structure, it creates an electrical charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while decreasing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically employed to generate forces or even to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not generate a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the right information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it can cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system having a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal of the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is frequently utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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